Investments in transport, especially the road transport sector has received a lot of attention in Ghana s economic development agenda even though empirical evidence concerning the impact of road construction, rehabilitation and maintenance projects have raised questions about the direct rate of returns from such investments without other complementary policies, programmes and projects. The popularity of the road transport sector in the country as an agent of growth and change is evident from the primacy its investments command in most government portfolios. In order to establish the object of these investments the specific impact should be established. This study is an attempt in that direction taken the Birim North District of the eastern region of Ghana as a case.
Poverty issue has become a major concern of the world. As such it is the prime goal of the Millennium Development Goals set to be achieved by 2015. The incidence of poverty has been higher among the rural folks than among the urbanized. Consequently any policy or strategy aimed at meaningful poverty reduction among the populace should be rural centered. The Green Revolution adopted in Asia and Central America achieved some economic progress and poverty reduction. Ravallion(2007),states that the key lesson Sub-Saharan Africa can learn in replicating China's success against poverty is to give high priority to agriculture and rural development in the near future. The expansion of oil palm plantation in Sarawak-Malaysia,from 0. 12 percent of land area in 1976 to 4. 08 percent in 2004 saw 85 percent fall in the proportion of those living below the poverty line from 51. 7 to7. 5 Despite the success of agriculture in reducing poverty, development policies and strategies in Ghana are urban centered. This has led to wider poverty incidence between the rural folks and the urbanized. As a result,agro-based industrialization is seen as the sine qua non to reducing the incidence of poverty in Ghana
Nowadays, agricultural prices are highlighted around the world combined with, as alleged collateral effects, hunger and malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, today SSA has around 47,5 percent of rural population in extreme poverty while between 1990 and 2005 when food prices were stable and low, extreme rural poverty in SSA involved around 64. 6 percent of population. We assume that the undernourishment or starvation continued in SSA because there the misery persisted. Poverty reduction is the only way to the end hunger in Africa. Also, for an agricultural country in SSA the best way to solve the problem of poverty is through agricultural development. Thus, we have built up a model trying to answer to the question of how the agricultural gears in SSA 9 (Burundi, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe)were moving between 1990 and 2005, and assess how the agricultural growth could reduce rural poverty. The most important result is that the main tools that had a strong relation with poverty reduction in SSA 9 were legislation on property rights (PR), access to the credit system, Human capital and infrastructure.
This work provides context-specific, empirical revelations about the challenges of policy implementation in Africa. It critically examines the social milieu under which the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)programme was incubated as a social protection and poverty reduction measure to cater for the needs of the pro-poor in Ghanaian society. Despite the popular claim that this programme is good and must be sustained, empirical evidence gathered at street-level (district-level) shows that the LEAP programme is bedeviled with numerous implementation and monitoring challenges which collectively hinder the attainment of the desired objectives of the programme.
The research aimed to investigate the contribution of page production to household poverty reduction. The study was conducted in Dodoma Municipal Council at Mpunguz award where structured questionnaire was used as a tool of data collection. Household survey involved 38 households which were engaged in grapevine production, 38 households which were not engaged in the respective production and 9 informants conducted.
Decentralisation of government has been a major policy direction of the World Bank and International Monetary Fund (IMF) as an adjunct to the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) imposed on low income countries. Decentralisation has become an important means of improving the effectiveness of services and of empowering the poor to participate in the development processes that affect their lives. The pivot of the local government system in Ghana is the District Assembly which has been set up to provide an enabling environment for socio-economic development. This study examines the extent to which the District Assemblies have achieved success. The study notes that there are perception gaps between the elites and the rural poor with respect to poverty and poverty alleviation strategies. It examines the fact that those who define poverty and then formulate poverty reduction policies for the designated population have no lived experience of poverty. The state has employed structures of grassroots participation without achieving active participation or conceding real power to the local people. The poor are, therefore, rendered anonymous in the design of poverty alleviation programmes.
While poverty remains the most challenging issue of policy concern in developing countries, infrastructure provision has emerged as a central vehicle for poverty reduction. For most developing countries, despite the belief that infrastructure contributes to poverty reduction not much has been achieved in this respect. Developing countries continue to make huge investments in infrastructure provision, but still to no avail. This book which draws mainly on economics and public policy studies, identifies and tests the potential contribution of infrastructure to poverty reduction, and explains why infrastructure provision in developing countries has failed to significantly contribute to poverty reduction. The book argues that poverty reduction should not only be about infrastructure or its socioeconomic benefits, but, also the policy and governance frameworks that guide its provision. This was illustrated with the case of Ghana. The book expands the body of knowledge on infrastructure and poverty reduction, and should be useful to policy makers and development planners. Students of development, economics, public policy, and project management will also find the insights shed useful.
Can Poverty be eliminated or reduced in Ghana. Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) has been a major policy that has been embarked by the World Bank and International Monetary Fund as an adjunct to Structural Adjustment Programme imposed on developing countries including Ghana. The Structural Adjustment Programme has been regarded by many economic commentators as a failure because it placed much emphasis on reduction of public spending. This has led to the growth of new emphasis on participatory development in an attempt to reduce poverty. This work analyses the extent of participatory research that has been used in producing the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) document, and the effectiveness of the different stakeholder views. The Ghana Poverty Reduction was meant to be participatory which would invariably empower the poor to participate in the development processes that affect their lives. Based on Participatory action research and desk study of a district in Ghana, the paper argues that the communities were not properly consulted for the projects that affect their lives. It placed much emphasis on participation as an important tool in research
This book assesses the impact of rural empowerment on poverty reduction in Benue State of Nigeria. It addresses issues such as poverty, improvement in the standard of living, ways of empowering the rural dwellers and factors that militates against rural empowerment schemes. Also Its positive effect on poverty reduction in Benue state of Nigeria. In light of the findings, it was recommended that government should do more to initiate poverty alleviation programs and as well ensure adequate funding of such programs to alleviate poverty. This book is a must read for individuals,policy makers, government and the general public not just of less developed economies but also of the developed economies.
'Some Basic Issues on Rural and Micro Finance Regulation in Ghana' (originally part of my master thesis) is a careful description of how micro finance can be used to fight poverty and create financial sustainability through the use of effective and efficient rural and micro finance regulatory regimes. This it does by carefully examining the available literature on rural and micro finance regulation in Ghana so as to determine what role regulation has or can play on the sustainability and improvement of rural and micro finance institutions for the alleviation of poverty in Ghana. The realization is that regulation has a cardinal role to play on the sustainability of rural and micro finance institutions, hence rural poverty reduction and development. This work is aimed at providing useful information for those who may be interested in the micro finance industry in the Ghana and Micro Finance Industry in general. These include among others; investors, micro finance practioners as well as students generally interested in micro finance regulation particularly in Ghana.
Tourism in the developing world has great potentials in raising living standards in rural areas because the customer comes to the product creating opportunities for direct sell, social interaction including other benefits like donations to the community with the attractions. No wonder the MDG s identified tourism development as a significant contributor to poverty alleviation. In this regard also, the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy I & II documents equally identified tourism as key to livelihood enhancement particularly in rural areas where poverty is more severe. In this book, hotel facilities in Wa Municipality were assessed to examine their pro-poor impact. Furthermore, three communities with tourism attractions located in three different districts were equally surveyed to assess tourism s contribution to livelihood enhancement in the study area. The book finally recommended that making tourism rural-oriented was a sure way to giving the visitor a new experience and efforts must be made not to depart from this norm.
The book 'Commercial Motorcycling and Poverty Reduction in Ushongo Local Government Area of Benue State'is an empirical research study that took a different view at poverty reduction efforts in Nigeria in general and Benue State in particular. Over the years successive Nigerian governments have evolved policy measures aimed at reducing poverty but the population of Nigerians living in poverty keeps increasing. There appear to be a positive relationship between poverty reduction efforts and poverty in Nigeria which is not a good development. Commercial motorcycling in Nigeria due to its accident-prone nature is seen as a non-desirable trade. However, this study makes use of Ushongo LGA which is a rural community given that poverty situation in Nigeria is worst in rural communities that lack even the very basic needs of life. Incidentally, the commercial motorcycling activity proved to be a veritable poverty reduction measure in this community. This finding surprisingly is in line with similar studies carried out in towns and cities in Nigeria and elsewhere. Thus,the findings of this study can help in redirecting the poverty reduction policies towards self-made efforts in Nigeria.
Sierra Leone has continued to report high rates of rural poverty incidence in Africa despite the series of global development efforts. The country was ravaged by a drawn-out civil war in the 1990s, and is currently among the three West African countries including Guinea and Liberia that have been worst hit by the Ebola virus disease. While the bearing of this epidemic is largely an outcome of endemic poverty, the narrative of this book had been concluded before the virus could get a foothold in Sierra Leone. Emanating from an award winning doctoral research in Japan, the book has been written in the context of the country s civil war. It presents a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of rural household poverty and policy options focusing on Sierra Leone. The inertia experienced in rural poverty reduction in the country defines the prime questions investigated in this book. These include issues as to whether there has been adequate understanding of the conditions in which the average rural household has lived, and the complex contexts in which they make welfare decisions; and whether national development policies have generally been effective in reducing poverty.
This book seeks to explain the dynamics of community development and poverty reduction in rural communities of Bayelsa State in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. It achieves its aim by researching a the impact of a World Bank project on the lives of locals in rural communities. The book is structured in five chapters. The initial chapter introduces the theme of the research and explain the objectives, hypothesis and theoritical framework of the research, the second chapter undertakes a literature review of the theme of the research 'Community Development and Poverty Reduction'. The Third Chapter explains the research setting, the fourth chapter documents the research outputs and the fifth chapter concludes the study by making recommendations. The book highlights the importance of participation in rural community development projects and recommends that poverty reduction projects should be implemented in a way that gives community the capacity to sustain projects even in the absence of donors.
The link between forests and poverty reduction in developing countries is a subject of considerable interest. Studies have revealed a high dependence on forest resources by neighboring communities for purposes of sustaining livelihoods. However, most studies have focused on the role of Timber products ignoring the vital role of Non-Timber Forest Products in alleviating poverty. Clearly, there exist knowledge gaps on the social aspects of forests, in particular, on the impacts of forest resources on household poverty. This book is an outcome of a field survey conducted in Cherangany Hills, Kenya, to investigate the poverty reducing effect of forests. It uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to highlight the Poverty-Environment linkages in the forestry sector. The findings should particularly be helpful to conservationists and development practitioners in Government and Civil Society aiming at mainstreaming forestry into poverty reduction strategies.
Microfinance is becoming a tool of poverty reduction in Pakistan and Bangladesh, given the high rates of poverty in these countries. Poverty is greater in the rural agricultural sector where peoples livelihood is dependent on agricultural activities. Furthermore, the agricultural sector in the two countries is still underdeveloped. This study examines the role of agricultural microfinance services and products to assess whether microfinance is contributing to rural agriculture and rural development in Pakistan and Bangladesh, where a majority of the populations are located and their livelihood dependent on agriculture. Accordingly, the study examines rural agricultural needs and demands in the two countries and the role of microfinance in addressing them. Mostly based on secondary data sources, the study compares the two countries along certain indicators generated by the framework developed. This framework integrates the concepts of rural agriculture, rural development, poverty reduction and microfinance, which serves as the analytical toolkit.
The most important goal for development efforts in developing countries like Ethiopia is to reduce poverty. Poverty in Ethiopia has been described as mostly a rural phenomenon. Though over the past decade Ethiopia has made significant strides in improving the living standards of its citizens, an increasingly large number of men and women are unable to move out of poverty because of a deteriorating asset base, inappropriate policies, institutions and processes. The vulnerability to poverty of households in the region is also found to be high as a substantial share of those currently above the poverty line are highly vulnerable to poverty in the future. Therefore ex ante measures to prevent households from becoming poor as well as ex post measures to alleviate those already in poverty should be combined in evaluating poverty reduction strategies.
Rice is one of the main staple foods in the world and has also become the second most important staple food in Ghana. Policy strategies over the years as captured in the Food and Agriculture Sector Development policy (FASDEP 1), Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS) I and II, Medium Term Agriculture Development Policy (MTADP) and Ministry of Food and Agriculture policy documents have sought to promote rice production to address food security and poverty reduction issues. But rice production is threatened by the effects of climate changes which cannot be overlooked in finding measures to increase production and yield. The CERES-Rice (Ver. 4. 0) model was validated for use in simulating rice yields under different climate change scenarios for Ghana using data from the Anum Valley Irrigation Project. 18 years of weather data (1989-2006) was used to run the model. The effects of climate change on the yield of rice will depend on the actual patterns of change in rice growing areas. However, the negative impacts can be averted through appropriate measures such as changes in agronomic practices, development of more temperature tolerant rice varieties and appropriate training of farmers.
This study examines the likely impact of government expenditure policy on long run growth and poverty, in both rural and urban Nigeria, drawing on insights from research on some sectors in the Nigerian economy on the direct and indirect links between government spending, growth and poverty reduction. The main objective is to simulate if government expenditure in priority areas would help to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) of the United Nations. The study used an integrated sequential dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) micro-simulation model to study the potential impact of increasing government expenditure on growth and poverty reduction. The results of experiments indicate that it will be extremely difficult for Nigeria to achieve the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) target, in terms of poverty reduction by the year 2015, because no single policy measure in the analysis is able to meet this goal. This study therefore recommends that in order to promote economic growth and reduce poverty, investment in education and health services should receive the highest priority in the public investment portfolio.
Non-farm sector occupies a unique position in rural areas in the socio-economic context of Bangladesh. Developing the non-farm sector in rural areas may strengthen the economy, which is characterized by high rate of unemployment. The purpose of the research was increasing the obtainable growth of rural non-farm activities and find out the barriers what are responsible for horrible economy of RNA. To create employment opportunity according to the growthness. In such circumstances, this study has intended to unfold the development of non-farm sector in rural Bangladesh. For this purpose, the existing condition of non-farm sector, how far it would be possible to create employment opportunity in Baghutia Union under Avainogor Parishad, Jessore District as well as the problem of this sector has been investigated. For this study the qualitative and quantitative information has collected by PRA and structured questionnaire method. Here a model has discovered. This model shows the actual involvement of rural non-farm activities and the growth pattern in a particular area.