This Book 'Fluorescence Spectroscopy as Tissue Diagnostics: A Review' gives an overview of the importance of fluorescence spectroscopy as an sensitive optical diagnostic technique for early and non-invasive diagnosis of diseases and its application on breast and cervical diseased tissues. This book is one of the parts of research done by the author during her Ph. D. work and contains recent references and research work done by researchers all over the world.
This book by Dr. Nikolai Vekshin is the 2-nd edition (with additions and corrections). It is a brief course in fluorescence spectroscopy of biomacromolecules and their complexes. General items on spectroscopy, engineering of experiments and biological examples are given. Proteins, enzymes, DNA, oligonucleotides, biomembranes, coenzymes, antibiotics, fluorescent probes, dyes etc. are presented as examples (basically from own experience of the author). The book is intended for biophysicists, biochemists, molecular biologists, physical-chemists and other researchers, interested in use of fluorescent methods.
The book divided in to two parts. In the first part of this book, the historical development, the basic principles and some photo-physical process of fluorescence spectroscopy, the various biological applications of this instruments were presented. In second part, the historical development of EPR, a typical atomic system that exhibit paramagnetic system, the basic principles and applications of this instrument in biological and chemical systems were reviewed.
This book focuses on the application of portable X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy to both the skeletal remains and the surrounding burial environment of thirteen bog bodies; twelve from raised bogs, and one from a fen bog. Portable XRF Spectroscopy can help to determine the difference between the diagenetic effects of a raised bog compared to a fen bog, and to identify whether housing curators and staff applied post-discovery preservation procedures to bog bodies. Various elements were analyzed from the bone and/or teeth of the bog bodies, and soil from their finding sites. Portable XRF Spectroscopy helps to provide information regarding the interaction between the bog environment and the remains of bog bodies. By assisting in the identification of post-discovery preservation sites on the bog bodies, portable XRF Spectroscopy can improve comprehension of archival collection history of bog bodies, and can offer the possibility of reversing or lessening the effects of detrimental preservative treatments to the bog bodies.
X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) is a non-destructive and fast technique that allows knowing the elemental composition of a sample thanks to the emission of characteristic X-rays in that sample. The TimePix pixel semiconductor detector can detect these characteristic X-rays and tell the energy of the incoming photons in each pixel. This permits to make a spatial characterization of the sample, besides the elemental characterization. This work explores X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy with the use of TimePix with the purpose of characterizing the spectra of two samples and spatially characterize a sample consisting those elements. It was possible to obtain different spectra for both elements with the device by the use of a threshold scan method, as well as to know which region of the sample consisted of which element by superpixel analysis of the count pixel matrix given by the TimePix device. The work first presents a short introduction to XRF spectroscopy in general and using TimePix. Then it presents the theoretical basis needed and finally it exposes the experimental procedures followed and their results. In the last chapter, conclusions and future work are given.
Ultraviolet visible spectroscopy or ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis or UV/Vis) refers to absorption spectroscopy or reflectance spectroscopy in the ultraviolet-visible spectral region. This means it uses light in the visible and adjacent (near-UV and near-infrared (NIR)) ranges. The absorption or reflectance in the visible range directly affects the perceived color of the chemicals involved. In this region of the electromagnetic spectrum, molecules undergo electronic transitions. This technique is complementary to fluorescence spectroscopy, in that fluorescence deals with transitions from the excited state to the ground state, while absorption measures transitions from the ground state to the excited state.
Analytical spectroscopic techniques have been extremely useful and results oriented in terms of environment assessment. This book deals with the techniques like energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), induced coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and their applications on soil, plants and water samples. The basic theory, provided along with the all experimental details is a key feature of this book. Various sample preparation methods have been used and studied, as well. The proper use of different multivariate statistical methods, applied on the large data, enable us to comprehend the results and to interpret them. Statistical methods like PCA, Ridge Regression, PCR regression, etc. are employed in the book, in a detailed manner.
Breast and cervical cancers are the most common type of cancer among the female population of the Western world and is the leading cause of death in women. This disease can be cure if detected as early as possible. In Chapter 1, of the various conventional techniques in use, a brief discussion on how a healthy cervical tissue progresses into a cancerous one is discussed. Chapter 2 gives the description of Instrumentation involved in the photoluminescence spectroscopy and also the measurement of Polarized Emission of Fluorescence. Chapter 3 gives the theoretical background on Fluorescence spectroscopy and the methodology to extract Intrinsic Fluorescence. Chapter 4 and 5 compares the extracted intrinsic and bulk Fluorescence from the various Fluorophores found in normal and cancerous cervical and breast tissues. Chapter 6 is the conclusion of the research carried out on normal and cancerous cervical and breast tissues and discussion of the result obtained. I hope that the book will fulfil the need of reader. I shall greatly appreciate the critics and valuable suggestions for the improvement of quality and content of the book, from the readers at iitk. ejaz gmail. com.
In recent years, optically active glasses offer a broad range of applications; the functionality can be modified by appropriate doping. The design and development of optical devices such as solid state lasers, optical fiber amplifiers, optical storage materials, light converters, sensors, phosphors, acousto-optic modifiers and 3D waveguides, etc. require a detailed spectroscopic study of the optical properties such as emission peak wavelength, bandwidth, emission cross-section, lanthanide ion environment, phonon energies, etc. In view of the key role of lanthanide spectroscopy in science and technology especially in lasers, fiber amplifiers, white light phosphors, etc. , the present book, therefore, focuses on to study the optical and fluorescence properties of lanthanide-doped oxide glasses.
Oral cancer is one of the significant global health concerns with reports of more than ten million new cases and mortality of six million, each year. The current clinical procedure for oral cancer detection is visual examination followed by histopathological analysis of biopsied lesion. However, this procedure often leads to multiple biopsies due to the difficulty in identifying the most malignant site for biopsy and that the procedure is invasive and time-consuming in nature. This book presents an overview of non-invasive and real-time diagnostic techniques based on tissue fluorescence and diffuse reflectance to detect oral cancer using both point monitoring and multi-spectral imaging. The clinical study results of diffuse reflectance spectral imaging at oxygenated hemoglobin absorption dips establish the potential of this imaging modality in detecting squamous cell carcinoma affecting epithelial tissues of various organs and for biopsy guidance. The ability to observe disease onset and progression through non-invasive and cost effective screening methods at the population level would help to implement prevention and treatment strategies at an early stage.
Fullerenes are the third allotrope of carbon and have received much attention due to their unique properties. In this monograph on Optical Gain and Relaxation Mechanism of Fullerenes in Solutions , the effect of concentration of Fullerenes C60 and C70 molecules on their fluorescence spectra are studied in detail. Moreover, Forster s Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) from different dyes to the fullerenes are investigated and it has been found that Fullerene C60 Coumarin C440 pair and also Fullerene C70 Quinizarine pair may be used as spectroscopic rulers. Time Resolved Spectra of both the fullerenes in pure as well as in mixture form were measured and the results show that the optical gain is concentration-dependent and only Fullerene C70 shows positive gain, which can be used as a lasing material.
This work reports the synthesis and characterization of an artificial light harvesting antenna system, wherein semiconducting nanorods have been used as a support to assemble organic donor- acceptor moieties. The donor-acceptor molecules were assembled on the surface of semiconducting nanorods by grafting. Porphyrins and quinines were used as donors and acceptor molecules. The fashion of co-grafting and porphyrin to quinone ratios were studied which showed donor-accepter interaction significantly. The optoelectronic properties of cografted porphyrin- quinone on surface of ZnO nanorod were investigated by UV visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and XRD techniques. The nanohybrid material was tested as a photoactive blend of the dye sensitized solar cells.
Rapid and sensitive detection of chemical and biological analytes becomes increasingly important in areas such as medical diagnostics, food control and environmental monitoring. Optical biosensors based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and optical waveguide spectroscopy have been extensively pushed forward in these fields. In this book, we combine long range surface plasmons (LRSPs), surface plasmon-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPFS) and optical waveguide spectroscopy with hydrogel thin film for highly sensitive detection of molecular analytes. LRSPs are special surface plasmon waves propagating along thin metal films with orders of magnitude higher electromagnetic field intensity and lower damping than conventional SPs. Therefore, their excitation on the sensor surface provides higher fluorescence signal for molecules detection. The hydrogel thin film attached on a sensor surface served both as a binding matrix and as an optical waveguide for probing molecules interactions. The higher binding capacity of hydrogel and low damping of optical waveguide provide higher sensitivity for molecules detection as compared to regular SPR.
The work is an attempt to apply spectroscopic methods for the investigation of a few commonly used food items having beneficial or harmful effects on the human body. The food materials chosen for this study are chilli (Capsicum annum L. ) and its seeds, turmeric (Curcuma longa L. ) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L). The selected spectroscopic methods used here are X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), visible emission, Atomic Absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), Fourier transform Raman (FT-Raman) and fluorescence spectroscopy. Through XRF, AAS and visible emission spectroscopy qualitative elemental analysis of the sample has been done. For qualitative structural information FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopic methods are used which provide complete information about the functional groups (bonding type between elements) of the samples. The static fluorescence method has been used for getting large scale molecular information. The objectives of the above analyses are: first, to provide a satisfactory spectroscopic characterization of the samples and secondly to substantiate popular beliefs regarding the use of the sample for medicinal and nutritional purposes.